Tumor Circulating Cells

The CTC's (Circulating Tumor Cells), English, Tumor Cells Circulating have clinical utility in:

  • Risk stratification;
  • Early detection and diagnosis of various types of cancer;
  • Early detection of relapse / recurrence;
  • Monitoring response to treatment;
  • Evaluation of treatment efficacy.
Tumor Circulating Cells

(CTCs) are found in patients with various forms of metastatic carcinomas and from solid tumors dispersed in peripheral blood. It is generally explained that these cells are separated from the primary or secondary tumors of advanced cancer patients prior to detection in the bloodstream. The number of CTCs is considered much smaller with an estimated number of one in 100 million for one in a billion blood cells.

Scientists have discovered a test that can revolutionize the way doctors evaluate and treat a cancer patient. This technology involves the detection and genetic testing of tumor circulating cells in the bloodstream. Understanding Tumor Cells is extremely important, since it is the spread of cancer to other parts of the body - not the primary cancer - that is often responsible for the death of a person with cancer.

References

  1. Williams, S.C. (2013) Circulating Tumor Cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 110, 4861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1304186110
  2. Plaks, V., Koopman, C.D. and Werb, Z. (2013) Cancer. Circulating Tumor Cells. Science, 341, 1186-1188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1235226
  3. Miller, M.C., Doyle, G.V. and Terstappen, L.W. (2010) Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells Detected by the Cell- Search System in Patients with Metastatic Breast Colorectal and Prostate Cancer. Journal of Oncology, 2010, Article ID: 617421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/617421
  4. Smirnov, D.A., Zweitzig, D.R., Foulk, B.W., Miller, M.C., Doyle, G.V., Pienta, K.J., Meropol, N.J., Weiner, L.M., Cohen, S.J., Moreno, J.G., et al. (2005) Global Gene Expression Profiling of Circulating Tumor Cells. Cancer Re- search, 65, 4993-4997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4330
  5. Stott, S.L., Hsu, C.H., Tsukrov, D.I., Yu, M., Miyamoto, D.T., Waltman, B.A., Rothenberg, S.M., Shah, A.M., Smas, M.E., Korir, G.K., et al. (2010) Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells Using a Microvortex-Generating Herringbone- Chip. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 18392-18397.
  6. Toloudi, M., Apostolou, P., Chatziioannou, M. and Papasotiriou, I. (2011) Correlation between Cancer Stem Cells and Circulating Tumor Cells and Their Value. Case Reports in Oncology, 4, 44-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000324403
  7. Tibbe, A.G., Miller, M.C. and Terstappen, L.W. (2007) Statistical Considerations for Enumeration of Circulating Tu- mor Cells. Cytometry Part A, 71, 154-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.20369
  8. Hermann, P.C., Huber, S.L., Herrler, T., Aicher, A., Ellwart, J.W., Guba, M., Bruns, C.J. and Heeschen, C. (2007) Dis- tinct Populations of Cancer Stem Cells Determine Tumor Growth and Metastatic Activity in Human Pancreatic Cancer. Cell Stem Cell, 1, 313-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2007.06.002
  9. Riethdorf, S., Fritsche, H., Muller, V., Rau, T., Schindlbeck, C., Rack, B., Janni, W., Coith, C., Beck, K., Janicke, F., et al. (2007) Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Va- lidation Study of the Cell Search System. Clinical Cancer Research, 13, 920-928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1695
  10. Marrinucci, D., Bethel, K., Lazar, D., Fisher, J., Huynh, E., Clark, P., Bruce, R., Nieva, J. and Kuhn, P. (2010) Cyto- morphology of Circulating Colorectal Tumor Cells: A Small Case Series. Journal of Oncology, 2010, Article ID: 861341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/861341
  11. Meng, S., Tripathy, D., Frenkel, E.P., Shete, S., Naftalis, E.Z., Huth, J.F., Beitsch, P.D., Leitch, M., Hoover, S., Euhus, D., et al. (2004) Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients with Breast Cancer Dormancy. Clinical Cancer Research, 10, 8152-8162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-1110
  12. Allard, W.J., Matera, J., Miller, M.C., Repollet, M., Connelly, M.C., Rao, C., Tibbe, A.G., Uhr, J.W. and Terstappen, L.W. (2004) Tumor Cells Circulate in the Peripheral Blood of All Major Carcinomas but Not in Healthy Subjects or Patients with Nonmalignant Diseases. Clinical Cancer Research, 10, 6897-6904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0378
  13. Pachmann, K., Camara, O., Kavallaris, A., Krauspe, S., Malarski, N., Gajda, M., Kroll, T., Jorke, C., Hammer, U., Al- tendorf-Hofmann, A., et al. (2008) Monitoring the Response of Circulating Epithelial Tumor Cells to Adjuvant Che- motherapy in Breast Cancer Allows Detection of Patients at Risk of Early Relapse. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26, 1208-1215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.13.6523
  14. Cristofanilli, M. (2009) The Biological Information Obtainable from Circulating Tumor Cells. The Breast, 18, S38-S40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-9776(09)70270-x